1. Wijma K, Soderquist J, Wijma B. Posttraumatic stress disorder after childbirth: A cross-sectional study. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 1997;11(6):587-97.
  2. Czarnocka J, Slade P. Prevalence and predictors of post-traumatic stress symptoms following childbirth. British Journal of Clinical Psychology. 2000;39:35-51.
  3. Ayers S, Harris R, Sawyer A, Parfitt Y, Ford E. Posttraumatic stress disorder after childbirth: Analysis of symptom presentation and sampling. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2009;119:200-4.
  4. Ford E, Ayers S. Support during birth interacts with prior trauma and birth intervention to predict postnatal post-traumatic stress symptoms. Psychology and Health. in press.
  5. Soet J, Brack G, Dilorio C. Prevalence and predictors of women’s experience of psychological trauma during childbirth. Birth. 2003;30:36-46


  2. Make Birth Better(UK website mapping out local geographical resources for birth trauma)
  3. Birth Trauma Association. Has some good links to phone lines/peer group forums.
  4. ‘How to heal a Bad Birth’ by Brujin and Gould.